Optimizing Django: tricks for faster page loads

By reducing the file size of your CSS, JavaScript and images, as well as the number of unnecessary browser requests made to your site, load time of your applications pages can be drastically reduced, not to mention the load on your server.

Yahoo have created a list of the 35 best practices to speed up your website, a recommended read for any web developer. I wanted to summarize a few I recently implemented in a Django application.

In a nutshell:

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Two simple tricks for better shell script error handling

Psssst. Hey you... yeah you. Word on the street is your shell scripts don't do any error handling. They just chug happily along even when everything is broken.

Because a lowly shell shell script doesn't need any error handling right? WRONG!

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CSS cheat sheet

While reading CSS books and experimenting I found it helpful to take notes and put together a cheat sheet for quick reference. I figured others might find it useful so I'm sharing. I've also uploaded a simple PDF version.

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Python symmetric encryption with CRC

Recently I needed to transfer data between entities, but I needed to keep the data secure from prying eyes, and its integrity intact from busy little fingers on the wire.

I needed the solution to be simple, and support a high-performance environment. Seeing that I could exchange a secret key over a secure channel out-of-band (OOB), I opted for using symmetric-key cryptography.

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9 things about CSS any web developer should know

9 things I didn't know about CSS that I should have known years ago but I only picked up from a couple of good CSS books.

Having dabbled in web development over the years, I've had a basic working knowledge of CSS for quite some time. In fact, I've been around long enough to remember what the web was like when we were all using font tags and transparent pixel tricks. Back when it wasn't unusual to come across a web site using the BLINK tag. Let me tell you it was ugly and it was a mess. (Now get off my lawn!).

As soon as browsers started supporting CSS I picked up just enough to save myself from committing the geek equivalent of a war crime, but I never got around to fully mastering CSS in all its glory. Advanced subjects such as floats and layout still seemed a bit mysterious. And every so often I would come across a bit of CSS code that made no sense yet rendered perfectly in every single browser I tested. Clearly my CSS skills were behind the times.

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Django User Profiles - Simple yet powerful

So you're building a web application, and using the excellent contrib.auth subsystem to manage user accounts. Most probably you need to store additional information about your users, but how? Django profiles to the rescue!

Django provides a lightweight way of defining a profile object linked to a given user. The profile object can differ from project to project, and it can even handle different profiles for different sites served from the same database.

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Smack yourself if you don't use generic shell script hooks

Smack yourself in the forehead if you don't use the following snippet (or an equivalent) in all custom shell scripts that could benefit from a hooking mechanism:

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Background task processing and deferred execution in Django

Or, Celery + RabbitMQ = Django awesomeness!

As you know, Django is synchronous, or blocking. This means each request will not be returned until all processing (e.g., of a view) is complete. It's the expected behavior and usually required in web applications, but there are times when you need tasks to run in the background (immediately, deferred, or periodically) without blocking.

Some common use cases:

  • Give the impression of a really snappy web application by finishing a request as soon as possible, even though a task is running in the background, then update the page incrementally using AJAX.
  • Executing tasks asynchronously and using retries to make sure they are completed successfully.
  • Scheduling periodic tasks.
  • Parallel execution (to some degree).
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Good automation vs bad automation

I recently eliminated a bit of code that was supposed to handle upgrading our build infrastructure from using one distribution (e.g., Ubuntu 8.04 LTS) to another (e.g., Ubuntu 10.04 LTS). That got me thinking about how to decide (and then explain) when it's a good idea to automate and when it isn't.

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Django Signals: Be lazy, let stuff happen magically

When I first learned about Django signals, it gave me the same warm fuzzy feeling I got when I started using RSS. Define what I'm interested in, sit back, relax, and let the information come to me.

You can do the same in Django, but instead of getting news type notifications, you define what stuff should happen when other stuff happens, and best of all, the so-called stuff is global throughout your project, not just within applications (supporting decoupled apps).

For example:

  • Before a blog comment is published, check it for spam.
  • After a user logs in successfully, update his twitter status.

What you can do with signals are plentiful, and up to your imagination, so lets get into it.

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